Echoes in the Noise: Posterior Samples of Faint Galaxy Surface Brightness Profiles with Score-Based Likelihoods and Priors

Alexandre Adam ( Université de Montréal )

Examining the detailed structure of galaxy populations provides valuable insights into their formation and evolution mechanisms. Significant barriers to such analysis are the non-trivial noise properties of real astronomical images and the point spread function (PSF) which blurs structure. Here we present a framework which combines recent advances in score-based likelihood characterization and diffusion model priors to perform a Bayesian analysis of image deconvolution. The method, when applied to minimally processed emph{Hubble Space Telescope} (emph{HST}) data, recovers structures which have otherwise only become visible in next-generation emph{James Webb Space Telescope} (emph{JWST}) imaging.